Importance of science:Islamic Perspective

The word “Science” has been derived from a Latin word “ scientia,” which means “knowledge”.Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

We can see the references to natural phenomena in more than 10% of Qur’anic verses. Holy Quran includes all types of knowledge and thus contains all the basic ingredients of all the sciences pertaining to the nature.
According to Islam, the study of some disciplines is obligatory on everyone. Various academic sciences such as medicine ,biology, botany are also obligatory and necessary for those who can afford it, and it is a religious duty.
The importance and greatness of the position of science; It is to the extent that God commands His Prophet in the Qur’an: [O Prophet!] Say:

أَمَّنْ هُوَ قَانِتٌ آنَاء اللَّيْلِ سَاجِدًا وَقَائِمًا يَحْذَرُ الْآخِرَةَ وَيَرْجُو رَحْمَةَ رَبِّهِ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَابِ ﴿٩
Is the one who is obedient (to Allah, worships Allah devoutly) during hours of the night, prostrating himself and standing, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of Allah? Say: “Are those who know and those who do not know ever equal? Only the ûli’l elbâb (the owners of the continuous remembrance, the owners of the secret divine treasures) understand”.

It is obligatory for every Muslim to learn, for God loves those who seek knowledge. ”(Asool-Kafi, vol. 1, Fadl al-Alam, vol. 1, p. 35)
In order to provide more comfort and mastery over nature, various scientific specialties have been created.. In Islamic culture, all the knowledge needed for human life is important and it is recommended that people take into account the necessary needs of society to learn it, and it is interpreted as “obligatory sufficiency”.

according to the Qur’an and hadiths, science is a means and not an end; It is the means that perfects man and makes him prosperous in this world and the hereafter. In the general view of the Qur’an, any science that leads man to worldliness and puts him in the clutches of materialism and draws his understanding and consciousness to sleep and worldly enjoyment, making his ultimate goal only to attain materialism, is nothing but misguidance and vague. Non-religious sciences can also play a role and provide the conditions for human happiness. This is if it is not considered a goal, but a means of progress.
One may know God so well from the science of chemistry that he does not know from the study of religious books – so what is important is to know the alchemy of the universe – although it must be admitted that some sciences and disciplines are closer and less mediated to this goal.

Science is phenomenal subject as far as solving social and community problems are concerned. People in the community study those sciences, not only pleasantly, but in some cases it becomes obligatory for people to study. For example, solving the problems of the people and governing the society depends on studying in one of the specialized fields.Man, on the other hand, is a social being and dependent on society, and as he enjoys social gifts, he must also be useful to society. Sometimes studying in a particular field may not seem to have a direct spiritual benefit for a person, but Because it promotes the society, especially the Islamic society, and causes its pride, authority, scientific and economic dignity, its education is necessary, and education with such a motivation is one of the important acts of worship.

This is one of the characteristics of the holy religion of Islam that its followers in any situation and job can be worshiping with divine motive and intention to serve the people. It is obtained by studying history that the great men of perfection were masters and experts in various sciences of their time, that is, they did not see any contradiction between studying sciences such as mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry, and studying in the fields of religious education.They used slavery to get closer to the truth and to walk the path of servitude. Therefore, studying zoology, like other sciences, if motivated by becoming a scientist and becoming more familiar with the wonders of creation, as well as strengthening the scientific strength of the country and meeting its scientific and professional needs,
, Is a work of worship and the hereafter, because the intention and motivation is divine and spiritual. Conversely, if a person studies in the field of education, but his motivation is to gain fame or income or to gain a position and position, although his educational subject is valuable, but because it is not done with a divine and spiritual motivation, it has no value.Science adds to reason and creates desirable attributes in its instructor …

It is pertinent to mention here that We see many people who try to interpret some of the Qur’anic verses in the light of the present scientific knowledge. The main aim is to show the miracle of the Qur’an in the scientific domain to convince non-Muslims of the glory and uniqueness of the Qur’an. But the view considering the Qur’an as a source of knowledge is not a novel. We see many Muslim scholars who are proponents of this view. One is Imam al-Ghazali. In his book (The Revival of Religious Sciences), he quotes Ibn Mas’ud as saying: If one desires to have the knowledge of the sciences of the ancients and the moderns, he should ponder over the Qur’an.” All sciences are included in the works of Allah, and the Qur’an is the explanation of His attributes, and works.
The principle of these sciences, which we have enumerated and of those which we have not specified, are not outside the Qur’an, for all of these sciences are drawn from one of the seas of knowledge of God—may He be exalted—i.e., the sea of His works.

Translator: Salma Syeda

Keywods: Allah, Quran, Islam and science, Religion, Islamic society, social science,Muslim,Hadith,Narrations, Governance